American Family Vision Clinic Logo
Qing Lu, Yuanyuan Zheng, Baochen Sun, Tongtong Cui, Nathan Congdon, Ailian Hu, Jianhua Chen, Jiliang Shi

A population-based study of visual impairment among pre-school children in Beijing: the Beijing study of visual impairment in children

publication date
2009 Feb 10.
see more


Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment among Chinese children aged 3 to 6 years in Beijing.

Design: Population-based prevalence survey.

Methods: Presenting and pinhole visual acuity were tested using picture optotypes or, in children with pinhole vision < 6/18, a Snellen tumbling E chart. Comprehensive eye examinations and cycloplegic refraction were carried out for children with pinhole vision < 6/18 in the better-seeing eye.


Results: All examinations were completed on 17,699 children aged 3 to 6 years (95.3% of sample). Subjects with bilateral correctable low vision (presenting vision < 6/18 correctable to >or= 6/18) numbered 57 (0.322%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.237% to 0.403%), while 14 (0.079%; 95% CI, 0.038% to 0.120%) had bilateral

uncorrectable low vision (best-corrected vision of < 6/18 and >or= 3/60), and 5 subjects (0.028%; 95% CI, 0.004% to 0.054%) were bilaterally blind (best-corrected acuity < 3/60). The etiology of 76 cases of visual impairment included: refractive error in 57 children (75%), hereditary factors (microphthalmos, congenital cataract, congenital motor nystagmus, albinism, and optic nerve disease) in 13 children (17.1 %), amblyopia in 3 children (3.95%), and cortical blindness in 1 child (1.3%). The cause of visual impairment could not be established in 2 (2.63%) children. The prevalence of visual impairment did not differ by gender, but correctable low vision was significantly (P < .0001) more common among urban as compared with rural children.

Conclusion: The leading causes of visual impairment among Chinese preschool-aged children are refractive error and hereditary eye diseases. A higher prevalence of refractive error is already present among urban as compared with rural children in this preschool population.


Such a nice optician. My grandson is only 4 and needs glasses. We were so sad, but he explained the issues, and we will follow up as he suggested.

Anna P.

I had such a good experience with the clinic. Very friendly staff and doctor, did not have to wait for long to be called, and was treated respectfully. Thanks, American Family.

June S.

Dr. Zurcher has gone above and beyond what any other eye doctor has ever done to figure out what is going on with my eyes. Very happy with American Family Vision.

Christine R.

Family Vision Clinic changed our lives! My daughter was frequently car sick, and she was getting headaches every day, often painful enough that they brought her to tears. We saw a string of doctors and therapists, but we made no progress. Finally, we found Dr. Levi Zurcher and his eye therapist Rain. After ten weeks of eye therapy my daughter no longer gets headaches, and she no longer gets car sick. Daily tears are a thing of the past. I really can’t say enough about this clinic. It was fascinating to watch Dr. Zurcher work. For the first time, someone who knew what they were doing was intently studying my daughter, really trying to figure out all of her eye issues, and his therapist Rain is one of the most patient and lovely people that I’ve ever had the good fortune to meet. We’re finished with eye therapy—yay!—and I have switched to American Family Vision Clinic for all of my family’s other eye health needs.

Lars Wulff

Very professional, yet kind and helpful. They do what they can to make the appointment comfortable. I was running a bit late, I made sure ti call. They were able to switch me with a patient who was already there, they treated me with respect, and helped my son have confidence by getting him the eye care he needed that day. Thank you so much! Would recommend to anyone. It's a blessing that they care enough to work with people who have all different types of insurance from work to state coverage.

Justin E.

The staff is friendly. The Doc is very knowledgeable. The office is family friendly and everyone is so patient with the little ones.

Amy Fagerness
1 2 3



Discover effective treatment options for diabetic retinopathy; consult our eye care professionals to protect your vision and overall well-being

Treating diabetic retinopathy Treating diabetic retinopathy is a critical aspect of preserving vision and maintaining the overall quality of life […]

Read More
Carrots for eyes

Are Carrots Good for Your Eyes?

As an optometrist at American Family Vision Clinic in Olympia, one of the most common questions Dr. Levi Zurcher often […]

Read More

Understanding Foggy vision

Is foggy vision troubling you? Let our experienced optometrist restore your sight – book an appointment today and see the […]

Read More
see all blogs

Contact Us To Amplify Your EyeCare

Working Hours

Monday - Thursday
8:00 am - 5:15pm
400 Yauger Way SW. Bldg 1, Ste A Olympia, WA 98502
Website Accessibility Policy
Safety protocols page
phone-handsetarrow-uparrow-right linkedin facebook pinterest youtube rss twitter instagram facebook-blank rss-blank linkedin-blank pinterest youtube twitter instagram