American Family Vision Clinic Logo
Authors
MARRAN, LYNN F. OD, PhD, FAAO; DE LAND, PAUL N. PhD; NGUYEN, ANDREW L. PhD

Accommodative Insufficiency Is the Primary Source of Symptoms in Children Diagnosed With Convergence Insufficiency

publication date
February 14, 2006
Category
see more

Abstract/Introduction

Purpose

Accommodative insufficiency (AI) and convergence insufficiency (CI) have been associated with similar symptomology and frequently present at the same time. The severity of symptomology in CI has been linked to the severity of the CI, suggesting a dose-dependent relationship. However, with increasing severity of CI also comes increased comorbidity of AI. AI alone has been shown to cause significant symptomology. We hypothesize that AI drives the symptoms in CI with a comorbid AI condition (CIwAI) and that it is the increased coincidence of AI, rather than increased severity of CI, which causes additional symptomology.

 

Methods

Elementary school children (n = 299) participated in a vision screening that included tests for CI and AI and the CISS-V15 symptom survey. They were categorized into four groups:1) normal binocular vision (NBV); 2) AI-only; 3) CI-only; and 4) CIwAI. One hundred seventy elementary school children fell into the categories of interest.


Conclusion/Results

Results

Pairwise comparison of the group means on the symptom survey showed: 1) children with AI-only (mean = 19.7, p = 0.006) and children with CIwAI (mean = 22.8, p = 0.001) had significantly higher symptom scores than children with NBV (mean = 10.3); and 2) children with CI-only (mean = 12.9, p = 0.54) had a similar symptom score to children with NBV. Using a two-factor analysis of variance (AI and CI), the AI effect was significant (AI mean = 21.56; no AI mean = 11.56, p < 0.001), whereas neither the CI effect (p = 0.16) nor the CI by AI interaction effect (p = 0.66) were significant.

 

Conclusion. 

CI is a separate and unique clinical condition and can occur without a comorbid AI condition, our CI-only group. Past reports of high symptom scores for children with CI are the result of the presence of AI, a common comorbid condition. When AI is factored out, and children with CI only are evaluated, they are not significantly more symptomatic than children with NBV.


Testimonials


  • Such a nice optician. My grandson is only 4 and needs glasses. We were so sad, but he explained the issues, and we will follow up as he suggested.


    Anna P.

  • I had such a good experience with the clinic. Very friendly staff and doctor, did not have to wait for long to be called, and was treated respectfully. Thanks, American Family.


    June S.

  • Dr. Zurcher has gone above and beyond what any other eye doctor has ever done to figure out what is going on with my eyes. Very happy with American Family Vision.


    Christine R.

  • Family Vision Clinic changed our lives! My daughter was frequently car sick, and she was getting headaches every day, often painful enough that they brought her to tears. We saw a string of doctors and therapists, but we made no progress. Finally, we found Dr. Levi Zurcher and his eye therapist Rain. After ten weeks of eye therapy my daughter no longer gets headaches, and she no longer gets car sick. Daily tears are a thing of the past. I really can’t say enough about this clinic. It was fascinating to watch Dr. Zurcher work. For the first time, someone who knew what they were doing was intently studying my daughter, really trying to figure out all of her eye issues, and his therapist Rain is one of the most patient and lovely people that I’ve ever had the good fortune to meet. We’re finished with eye therapy—yay!—and I have switched to American Family Vision Clinic for all of my family’s other eye health needs.


    Lars Wulff

  • Very professional, yet kind and helpful. They do what they can to make the appointment comfortable. I was running a bit late, I made sure ti call. They were able to switch me with a patient who was already there, they treated me with respect, and helped my son have confidence by getting him the eye care he needed that day. Thank you so much! Would recommend to anyone. It's a blessing that they care enough to work with people who have all different types of insurance from work to state coverage.


    Justin E.

Blog

Atkinson Hyperlegible Font (1)

Atkinson Hyperlegible Font

Named after Braille Institute founder, J. Robert Atkinson, Atkinson Hyperlegible font is great for low vision readers.  In contrast to […]

Read More
displeased-grey-haired-man-suffers-headache-keeps-hands-head-reveal-pain-needs-painkillers-has-migraine-after-noisy-party-wears-formal-shirt-isolated-brown-wall

Binocular Vision Dysfunction (BVD)

Binocular vision refers to the ability of the eyes to work together. The term binocular vision dysfunction describes a misalignment […]

Read More
woman-putting-eye-drops-sore-eyes (1)

Contact Lens Discomfort Caused by Dry Eyes

Dry eye symptoms are the main reason that most people stop wearing contact lenses. There are many causes and reasons […]

Read More
see all blogs

Contact Us To Amplify Your EyeCare

Working Hours

Monday - Thursday
8:00 am - 5:15pm
friday-sunday
Closed
Location
400 Yauger Way SW. Bldg 1, Ste A Olympia, WA 98502
Website Accessibility Policy
Safety protocols page
phone-handsetarrow-uparrow-right linkedin facebook pinterest youtube rss twitter instagram facebook-blank rss-blank linkedin-blank pinterest youtube twitter instagram