American Family Vision Clinic Logo
Irene H Ludwig, Susan P Imberman, Hilary W Thompson, Marshall M Parks

Common forms of childhood exotropia

publication date
see more


Objective: To determine the most common forms of childhood exotropia.


Design: Retrospective, consecutive, observational case series.


Participants: All exotropic children (with >/=10 prism diopters) younger than 19 years from a predominantly rural Appalachian region evaluated from August 1, 1995 through July 31, 2001.


Methods: Demographic and clinical data were collected on all patients.

Main outcome measures: The relative proportion of the various forms of childhood exotropia.


Results: Two hundred thirty-five consecutive children without prior surgical treatment were evaluated for exotropia. Of the 235 study children, the specific forms of exotropia diagnosed and numbers were as follows: intermittent exotropia, 112 (47.7%); exotropia associated with congenital or acquired abnormalities of the central nervous system (CNS), 50 (21.3%); convergence insufficiency, 27 (11.5%); sensory exotropia, 24 (10.2%); paralytic exotropia, 5 (2.1%); congenital exotropia, 4 (1.7%); neonatal exotropia that resolved after 4 months of age, 3 (1.3%), whereas the remaining 10 (4.3%) had an undetermined form of exodeviation.

Conclusions: Intermittent exotropia was the most common form of divergent strabismus in this population. Exotropia associated with an abnormal CNS, convergence insufficiency, and sensory exotropia were also relatively common, whereas the congenital, paralytic, and late-resolving neonatal forms were uncommon.


Such a nice optician. My grandson is only 4 and needs glasses. We were so sad, but he explained the issues, and we will follow up as he suggested.

Anna P.

I had such a good experience with the clinic. Very friendly staff and doctor, did not have to wait for long to be called, and was treated respectfully. Thanks, American Family.

June S.

Dr. Zurcher has gone above and beyond what any other eye doctor has ever done to figure out what is going on with my eyes. Very happy with American Family Vision.

Christine R.

Family Vision Clinic changed our lives! My daughter was frequently car sick, and she was getting headaches every day, often painful enough that they brought her to tears. We saw a string of doctors and therapists, but we made no progress. Finally, we found Dr. Levi Zurcher and his eye therapist Rain. After ten weeks of eye therapy my daughter no longer gets headaches, and she no longer gets car sick. Daily tears are a thing of the past. I really can’t say enough about this clinic. It was fascinating to watch Dr. Zurcher work. For the first time, someone who knew what they were doing was intently studying my daughter, really trying to figure out all of her eye issues, and his therapist Rain is one of the most patient and lovely people that I’ve ever had the good fortune to meet. We’re finished with eye therapy—yay!—and I have switched to American Family Vision Clinic for all of my family’s other eye health needs.

Lars Wulff

Very professional, yet kind and helpful. They do what they can to make the appointment comfortable. I was running a bit late, I made sure ti call. They were able to switch me with a patient who was already there, they treated me with respect, and helped my son have confidence by getting him the eye care he needed that day. Thank you so much! Would recommend to anyone. It's a blessing that they care enough to work with people who have all different types of insurance from work to state coverage.

Justin E.

The staff is friendly. The Doc is very knowledgeable. The office is family friendly and everyone is so patient with the little ones.

Amy Fagerness
1 2 3



Discover effective treatment options for diabetic retinopathy; consult our eye care professionals to protect your vision and overall well-being

Treating diabetic retinopathy Treating diabetic retinopathy is a critical aspect of preserving vision and maintaining the overall quality of life […]

Read More
Carrots for eyes

Are Carrots Good for Your Eyes?

As an optometrist at American Family Vision Clinic in Olympia, one of the most common questions Dr. Levi Zurcher often […]

Read More

Understanding Foggy vision

Is foggy vision troubling you? Let our experienced optometrist restore your sight – book an appointment today and see the […]

Read More
see all blogs

Contact Us To Amplify Your EyeCare

Working Hours

Monday - Thursday
8:00 am - 5:15pm
400 Yauger Way SW. Bldg 1, Ste A Olympia, WA 98502
Website Accessibility Policy
Safety protocols page
phone-handsetarrow-uparrow-right linkedin facebook pinterest youtube rss twitter instagram facebook-blank rss-blank linkedin-blank pinterest youtube twitter instagram