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To determine the prevalence, subtypes, and associated risk factors for intermittent exotropia (IXT) in preschool children aged 3 to 6 years in eastern China.
A population-based study including 5831 preschool children aged 3 to 6 years was conducted from 2011 to 2012 in Yuhua District, Nanjing, China, using an age-stratified random sampling procedure. Clinical examinations including ocular alignment, ocular motility, visual acuity, prism cover test, cycloplegia refraction, stereopsis screening, slitlamp examination, and fundus examination were performed by trained ophthalmologists and optometrists. Intermittent exotropia was defined as an acquired intermittent exodeviation of at least 10 prism diopters in an otherwise healthy child following the classification recommended by the National Eye Institute.
The overall prevalence of IXT in this population was 3.24% (95% confidence interval, 2.79 to 3.69%), with no age (p = 0.19) and sex (p = 0.89) differences. Among 166 children with IXT, the “basic type” was the most common type of IXT (74.7%), the “divergence excess” was the second (19.9%), whereas the “convergence weakness” was the rarest (5.4%). In multivariate analysis adjusting for age, sex, and other confounders, the presence of IXT was only associated with a history of hypoxia at birth (odds ratio, 4.41; 95% confidence interval, 2.47 to 7.86).
Intermittent exotropia affected approximately 1 in 30 Chinese preschool-aged children in eastern China, indicating a relatively higher burden of this pediatric eye condition in the world’s most populous country. The presence of IXT was strongly associated with a history of hypoxia at birth.
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Family Vision Clinic changed our lives! My daughter was frequently car sick, and she was getting headaches every day, often painful enough that they brought her to tears. We saw a string of doctors and therapists, but we made no progress. Finally, we found Dr. Levi Zurcher and his eye therapist Rain. After ten weeks of eye therapy my daughter no longer gets headaches, and she no longer gets car sick. Daily tears are a thing of the past. I really can’t say enough about this clinic. It was fascinating to watch Dr. Zurcher work. For the first time, someone who knew what they were doing was intently studying my daughter, really trying to figure out all of her eye issues, and his therapist Rain is one of the most patient and lovely people that I’ve ever had the good fortune to meet. We’re finished with eye therapy—yay!—and I have switched to American Family Vision Clinic for all of my family’s other eye health needs.
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