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To study the orbicularis oculi muscle response to asthenopia-inducing conditions.
Twenty subjects (18–36 years) screened for 20/20 vision in each eye participated in the study. Subjects read passages under different asthenopia-inducing conditions. The inducing conditions were glare, low contrast, small font size, refractive error, up gaze, accommodative stress and convergence stress. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to study the orbicularis oculi response from the right eye. Palpebral fissure height was measured from recorded video images of the right eye. At the end of each condition subjects were asked to rate the severity and type of visual discomfort experienced.
Outcome measures for the asthenopia-inducing conditions were compared with their respective nonstress controls. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. Refractive error (p = 0.0001), glare (p = 0.0001), low contrast (p = 0.007), small font (p = 0.034), and up gaze (p = 0.001) resulted in a significant increase in EMG power. Refractive error (p = 0.0001) and glare (p = 0.0001) also caused significant reduction in aperture size. Reading a low contrast text caused a reduction in blink rate (p = 0.035), whereas refractive error (p = 0.005) and glare (p = 0.01) caused an increase in blink rate. All conditions induced significant visual discomfort (p < 0.001).
Refractive error and glare, which reduce image quality and benefit from eyelid squint, caused increased EMG power, eyelid squint response and increased blink rate. Low contrast and small font, which reduce image quality but do not benefit from eyelid squint, resulted in increased EMG power without changes in aperture size and reduced blink rate (for low contrast). Accommodative and convergence stress (in subjects with normal accommodative and vergence abilities) did not cause changes in EMG power, aperture size or blink rate. These results suggest that contraction of the orbicularis oculi is a part of the asthenopia mechanism related to compromised image quality.
Such a nice optician. My grandson is only 4 and needs glasses. We were so sad, but he explained the issues, and we will follow up as he suggested.
I had such a good experience with the clinic. Very friendly staff and doctor, did not have to wait for long to be called, and was treated respectfully. Thanks, American Family.
Dr. Zurcher has gone above and beyond what any other eye doctor has ever done to figure out what is going on with my eyes. Very happy with American Family Vision.
Family Vision Clinic changed our lives! My daughter was frequently car sick, and she was getting headaches every day, often painful enough that they brought her to tears. We saw a string of doctors and therapists, but we made no progress. Finally, we found Dr. Levi Zurcher and his eye therapist Rain. After ten weeks of eye therapy my daughter no longer gets headaches, and she no longer gets car sick. Daily tears are a thing of the past. I really can’t say enough about this clinic. It was fascinating to watch Dr. Zurcher work. For the first time, someone who knew what they were doing was intently studying my daughter, really trying to figure out all of her eye issues, and his therapist Rain is one of the most patient and lovely people that I’ve ever had the good fortune to meet. We’re finished with eye therapy—yay!—and I have switched to American Family Vision Clinic for all of my family’s other eye health needs.
Very professional, yet kind and helpful. They do what they can to make the appointment comfortable. I was running a bit late, I made sure ti call. They were able to switch me with a patient who was already there, they treated me with respect, and helped my son have confidence by getting him the eye care he needed that day. Thank you so much! Would recommend to anyone. It's a blessing that they care enough to work with people who have all different types of insurance from work to state coverage.
The staff is friendly. The Doc is very knowledgeable. The office is family friendly and everyone is so patient with the little ones.
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