American Family Vision Clinic Logo
Authors
WONG, EVA P. F. BOptom; FRICKE, TIMOTHY R. MScOptom; DINARDO, CARLA BOptom

Interexaminer Repeatability of a New, Modified Prentice Card Compared with Established Phoria Tests

publication date
Category
see more

Abstract/Introduction

Purpose. 

The Howell phoria card, a new modification of the Prentice design, has no previously published validity or reliability data. The purpose of this study was to compare the interexaminer repeatability of the Howell phoria card with established tests.

 

Method. 

Experienced optometrists measured the near heterophoria of 72 subjects. Heterophoria was measured in a pseudo-random order using five standardized procedures: (1) Howell phoria card continuous presentation, (2) Howell phoria card flashed presentation, (3) free-space von Graefe method, 4) Bernell Muscle Imbalance Measure (MIM) card continuous presentation, and (5) MIM card flashed presentation.


Conclusion/Results

Results

The von Graefe method and the Howell phoria card flashed presentation found significantly less exophoric results than the MIM card. There was no consistent tendency for different examiners to find more exo- or more esophoric results with the phoria measurement techniques used in this study (p = 0.28). Both the Howell phoria card continuous presentation and the MIM card had significantly less variability in interexaminer differences than the Howell phoria card flashed presentation and the von Graefe method (p < 0.05).

 

Conclusions

Results from this study suggest that the Howell phoria card used in a continuous presentation method has an interexaminer repeatability that is not significantly different from the MIM card but greater than the von Graefe method.


Testimonials


  • Such a nice optician. My grandson is only 4 and needs glasses. We were so sad, but he explained the issues, and we will follow up as he suggested.


    Anna P.

  • I had such a good experience with the clinic. Very friendly staff and doctor, did not have to wait for long to be called, and was treated respectfully. Thanks, American Family.


    June S.

  • Dr. Zurcher has gone above and beyond what any other eye doctor has ever done to figure out what is going on with my eyes. Very happy with American Family Vision.


    Christine R.

  • Family Vision Clinic changed our lives! My daughter was frequently car sick, and she was getting headaches every day, often painful enough that they brought her to tears. We saw a string of doctors and therapists, but we made no progress. Finally, we found Dr. Levi Zurcher and his eye therapist Rain. After ten weeks of eye therapy my daughter no longer gets headaches, and she no longer gets car sick. Daily tears are a thing of the past. I really can’t say enough about this clinic. It was fascinating to watch Dr. Zurcher work. For the first time, someone who knew what they were doing was intently studying my daughter, really trying to figure out all of her eye issues, and his therapist Rain is one of the most patient and lovely people that I’ve ever had the good fortune to meet. We’re finished with eye therapy—yay!—and I have switched to American Family Vision Clinic for all of my family’s other eye health needs.


    Lars Wulff

  • Very professional, yet kind and helpful. They do what they can to make the appointment comfortable. I was running a bit late, I made sure ti call. They were able to switch me with a patient who was already there, they treated me with respect, and helped my son have confidence by getting him the eye care he needed that day. Thank you so much! Would recommend to anyone. It's a blessing that they care enough to work with people who have all different types of insurance from work to state coverage.


    Justin E.

Blog

kevin-lehtla-X1PDHkKuvwc-unsplash

Sunglasses and UV protection for your eyes

According to a new nationwide survey released, three-quarters of Americans worry about potential eye problems caused by the sun's ultraviolet […]

Read More
jack-b-oWUeGozstgs-unsplash

Scratched eye

The purpose of this article is to explain how to deal with corneal abrasions. If you scratched your eye you […]

Read More
Atkinson Hyperlegible Font (1)

Atkinson Hyperlegible Font

Named after Braille Institute founder, J. Robert Atkinson, Atkinson Hyperlegible font is great for low vision readers.  In contrast to […]

Read More
see all blogs

Contact Us To Amplify Your EyeCare

Working Hours

Monday - Thursday
8:00 am - 5:15pm
friday-sunday
Closed
Location
400 Yauger Way SW. Bldg 1, Ste A Olympia, WA 98502
Website Accessibility Policy
Safety protocols page
phone-handsetarrow-uparrow-right linkedin facebook pinterest youtube rss twitter instagram facebook-blank rss-blank linkedin-blank pinterest youtube twitter instagram