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Scheiman M, Kulp MT, Cotter SA, Lawrenson JG, Wang L, Li T

Interventions for convergence insufficiency: a network metaanalysis

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Convergence insufficiency is a common binocular vision disorder in which the eyes have a strong tendency to drift outward (exophoria) with difficulty turning the eyes inward when reading or doing close work.


To assess the comparative effectiveness and relative ranking of non-surgical interventions for convergence insufficiency through a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA).

Search methods

We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed and three trials registers up to 20 September 2019


Current research suggests that office-based vergence/accommodative therapy with home reinforcement is more effective than home based pencil/target push-ups or home-based computer vergence/accommodative therapy for children. In adults, evidence of the effectiveness of various non-surgical interventions is less clear.

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