American Family Vision Clinic Logo
Authors
Hsiang-Yuan Lin, Hsing-Chang Ni, Meng-Chuan Lai, Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng & Susan Shur-Fen Gau

Regional brain volume differences between males with and without autism spectrum disorder are highly age-dependent

publication date
21 May 2015
see more

Abstract/Introduction

Background

Neuroanatomical differences between individuals with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were inconsistent in the literature. Such heterogeneity may substantially originate from age-differential effects.

Methods

Voxel-based morphometry was applied in 86 males with ASD and 90 typically developing control (TDC) males (aged 7 to 29 years). Three steps of statistical modeling (model 1, multiple regression with age as a covariate; model 2, multiple regression further considering diagnosis-by-age interaction; model 3, age-stratified analyses) were performed to dissect the moderating effects of age on diagnostic group differences in neuroanatomy.


Conclusion/Results

Results

Across ages, males with and without ASD did not differ significantly in total gray matter (GM) or white matter (WM) volumes. For both groups, total GM volumes decreased and WM volumes increased with age. For regional volume, comparing with the model only held the age constant (model 1), the main effect of group altered when diagnosis-by-age interaction effects were considered (model 2). Here, participants with ASD had significantly greater relative regional GM volumes than TDC in the right inferior orbitofrontal cortex and bilateral thalamus; for WM, participants with ASD were larger than TDC in the bilateral splenium of corpus callosum and right anterior corona radiata. Importantly, significant diagnosis-by-age interactions were identified at the bilateral anterior prefrontal cortex, bilateral cuneus, bilateral caudate, and the left cerebellum Crus I for GM and left forceps minor for WM. Finally, age-stratified analyses (model 3) showed distinct patterns in GM and WM volumetric alterations in ASD among subsamples of children, adolescents, and adults.

Conclusions

Our findings suggest that the heterogeneous reports on the atypical neuroanatomy of ASD may substantially originate from age variation in the study samples. Age variation and its methodological and biological implications have to be carefully delineated in future studies of the neurobiology of ASD.


Testimonials


  • Such a nice optician. My grandson is only 4 and needs glasses. We were so sad, but he explained the issues, and we will follow up as he suggested.


    Anna P.

  • I had such a good experience with the clinic. Very friendly staff and doctor, did not have to wait for long to be called, and was treated respectfully. Thanks, American Family.


    June S.

  • Dr. Zurcher has gone above and beyond what any other eye doctor has ever done to figure out what is going on with my eyes. Very happy with American Family Vision.


    Christine R.

  • Family Vision Clinic changed our lives! My daughter was frequently car sick, and she was getting headaches every day, often painful enough that they brought her to tears. We saw a string of doctors and therapists, but we made no progress. Finally, we found Dr. Levi Zurcher and his eye therapist Rain. After ten weeks of eye therapy my daughter no longer gets headaches, and she no longer gets car sick. Daily tears are a thing of the past. I really can’t say enough about this clinic. It was fascinating to watch Dr. Zurcher work. For the first time, someone who knew what they were doing was intently studying my daughter, really trying to figure out all of her eye issues, and his therapist Rain is one of the most patient and lovely people that I’ve ever had the good fortune to meet. We’re finished with eye therapy—yay!—and I have switched to American Family Vision Clinic for all of my family’s other eye health needs.


    Lars Wulff

  • Very professional, yet kind and helpful. They do what they can to make the appointment comfortable. I was running a bit late, I made sure ti call. They were able to switch me with a patient who was already there, they treated me with respect, and helped my son have confidence by getting him the eye care he needed that day. Thank you so much! Would recommend to anyone. It's a blessing that they care enough to work with people who have all different types of insurance from work to state coverage.


    Justin E.

Blog

kevin-lehtla-X1PDHkKuvwc-unsplash

Sunglasses and UV protection for your eyes

According to a new nationwide survey released, three-quarters of Americans worry about potential eye problems caused by the sun's ultraviolet […]

Read More
jack-b-oWUeGozstgs-unsplash

Scratched eye

The purpose of this article is to explain how to deal with corneal abrasions. If you scratched your eye you […]

Read More
Atkinson Hyperlegible Font (1)

Atkinson Hyperlegible Font

Named after Braille Institute founder, J. Robert Atkinson, Atkinson Hyperlegible font is great for low vision readers.  In contrast to […]

Read More
see all blogs

Contact Us To Amplify Your EyeCare

Working Hours

Monday - Thursday
8:00 am - 5:15pm
friday-sunday
Closed
Location
400 Yauger Way SW. Bldg 1, Ste A Olympia, WA 98502
Website Accessibility Policy
Safety protocols page
phone-handsetarrow-uparrow-right linkedin facebook pinterest youtube rss twitter instagram facebook-blank rss-blank linkedin-blank pinterest youtube twitter instagram