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Authors
Rouse, Michael; Borsting, Eric; Mitchell, G Lynn; Cotter, Susan A.; Kulp, Marjean; Scheiman, Mitchell; Barnhardt, Carmen; Bade, Annette; Yamada, Tomohike the Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial (CITT) Investigator Group

Validity of the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey: A Confirmatory Study

publication date
September 30, 2008
Category
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Abstract/Introduction

Purpose. 

The objectives of the present study were to evaluate whether investigator bias influenced the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) scores of children with normal binocular vision (NBV) in our original validation study, reevaluate the usefulness of the cutoff score of 16, and reexamine the validity of the CISS.

 

Methods. 

Six clinical sites participating in the Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial (CITT) enrolled 46 children 9 to <18 years with NBV. Examiners masked to the child’s binocular vision status administered the CISS. The mean CISS score was compared with that from the children with NBV in the original, unmasked CISS study and also to that of the 221 symptomatic convergence insufficiency (CI) children enrolled in the CITT.


Conclusion/Results

Results

The mean (±standard deviation) CISS score for 46 subjects with NBV was 10.4 (±8.1). This was comparable with our prior unmasked NBV study (mean = 8.1 (±6.2); p = 0.11) but was significantly different from that of the CITT CI group (mean = 29.8 ± 9.0; p < 0.001). Eighty-three percent of these NBV subjects scored <16 on the CISS, which is not statistically different from the 87.5% found in the original unmasked study (p = 0.49).

 

Conclusions

Examiner bias did not affect the CISS scores for subjects with NBV in our prior study. The CISS continues to be a valid instrument for quantifying symptoms in 9 to <18-year-old children. These results also confirm the validity of a cut-point of ≥16 in distinguishing children with symptomatic CI from those with NBV.


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Such a nice optician. My grandson is only 4 and needs glasses. We were so sad, but he explained the issues, and we will follow up as he suggested.


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Family Vision Clinic changed our lives! My daughter was frequently car sick, and she was getting headaches every day, often painful enough that they brought her to tears. We saw a string of doctors and therapists, but we made no progress. Finally, we found Dr. Levi Zurcher and his eye therapist Rain. After ten weeks of eye therapy my daughter no longer gets headaches, and she no longer gets car sick. Daily tears are a thing of the past. I really can’t say enough about this clinic. It was fascinating to watch Dr. Zurcher work. For the first time, someone who knew what they were doing was intently studying my daughter, really trying to figure out all of her eye issues, and his therapist Rain is one of the most patient and lovely people that I’ve ever had the good fortune to meet. We’re finished with eye therapy—yay!—and I have switched to American Family Vision Clinic for all of my family’s other eye health needs.


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