American Family Vision Clinic Logo
Authors
Mondero, Nicholas E.; Crotty, Russell J.; West, Roger W.

Was Rembrandt Strabismic?

publication date
Category
see more

Abstract/Introduction

Purpose 

We studied a set of Rembrandt’s self-portraits to reassess a previous claim, based on measurements of the centration of his painted irises, that Rembrandt had a large exotropia.

 

Methods 

Of the 24 self-portraits that Rembrandt painted, with significant ocular detail to give an impression of the direction of his gaze, we scanned 10; the five with the largest difference in centration between the irises and the five with the smallest difference. The right and left eyes in each image were then occluded using Photoshop to produce two additional images that gave monocular gaze. Thirty observers then judged where the portraits appeared to be gazing within the plane of their face.


Conclusion/Results

Results 

Although our observers did judge a significant outward deviation for gaze between the two eyes, part of this was caused by an outward deviation from central by the presumably nonstrabismic eye. Any greater amount of outward deviation from the “strabismic” than the nonstrabismic eye can then be explained by a gaze overshoot induced by head turn, painting with a mirror, and angle kappas. In addition, Rembrandt’s apparent strabismus is seen only in those portraits painted during a few years early in his career, and portraits that Rembrandt and his students produced of other presumably nonstrabismic individuals often give a similar impression of strabismus.

 

Conclusions 

There are several factors that can explain why some of Rembrandt’s self-portraits make him look strabismic without concluding that he actually was. Rembrandt and his students may also have painted this appearance as an artistic style.


Testimonials


  • Such a nice optician. My grandson is only 4 and needs glasses. We were so sad, but he explained the issues, and we will follow up as he suggested.


    Anna P.

  • I had such a good experience with the clinic. Very friendly staff and doctor, did not have to wait for long to be called, and was treated respectfully. Thanks, American Family.


    June S.

  • Dr. Zurcher has gone above and beyond what any other eye doctor has ever done to figure out what is going on with my eyes. Very happy with American Family Vision.


    Christine R.

  • Family Vision Clinic changed our lives! My daughter was frequently car sick, and she was getting headaches every day, often painful enough that they brought her to tears. We saw a string of doctors and therapists, but we made no progress. Finally, we found Dr. Levi Zurcher and his eye therapist Rain. After ten weeks of eye therapy my daughter no longer gets headaches, and she no longer gets car sick. Daily tears are a thing of the past. I really can’t say enough about this clinic. It was fascinating to watch Dr. Zurcher work. For the first time, someone who knew what they were doing was intently studying my daughter, really trying to figure out all of her eye issues, and his therapist Rain is one of the most patient and lovely people that I’ve ever had the good fortune to meet. We’re finished with eye therapy—yay!—and I have switched to American Family Vision Clinic for all of my family’s other eye health needs.


    Lars Wulff

  • Very professional, yet kind and helpful. They do what they can to make the appointment comfortable. I was running a bit late, I made sure ti call. They were able to switch me with a patient who was already there, they treated me with respect, and helped my son have confidence by getting him the eye care he needed that day. Thank you so much! Would recommend to anyone. It's a blessing that they care enough to work with people who have all different types of insurance from work to state coverage.


    Justin E.

Blog

Atkinson Hyperlegible Font (1)

Atkinson Hyperlegible Font

Named after Braille Institute founder, J. Robert Atkinson, Atkinson Hyperlegible font is great for low vision readers.  In contrast to […]

Read More
displeased-grey-haired-man-suffers-headache-keeps-hands-head-reveal-pain-needs-painkillers-has-migraine-after-noisy-party-wears-formal-shirt-isolated-brown-wall

Binocular Vision Dysfunction (BVD)

Binocular vision refers to the ability of the eyes to work together. The term binocular vision dysfunction describes a misalignment […]

Read More
woman-putting-eye-drops-sore-eyes (1)

Contact Lens Discomfort Caused by Dry Eyes

Dry eye symptoms are the main reason that most people stop wearing contact lenses. There are many causes and reasons […]

Read More
see all blogs

Contact Us To Amplify Your EyeCare

Working Hours

Monday - Thursday
8:00 am - 5:15pm
friday-sunday
Closed
Location
400 Yauger Way SW. Bldg 1, Ste A Olympia, WA 98502
Website Accessibility Policy
Safety protocols page
phone-handsetarrow-uparrow-right linkedin facebook pinterest youtube rss twitter instagram facebook-blank rss-blank linkedin-blank pinterest youtube twitter instagram